Religious Political Mind Scramblers
Truths Holistic Interactive Retrospect Transcendental Electromagnetism Enslavers Nemesis
Chris Hedges (Jan 26, 2018) – On The Fall Of America
Fall Of Rome Eh
Criticism, Attack, Rebuke, Censure, Dressing-down, Telling Off, Limit, Parameter
Obstruct Justice Truth And Source Kill
Search Omnipresent Critical Rationale Accountable Truth Extraction Supposium
Taut Electromagnetic Elitists Transcendental Elongated Reckoning
1 law of 3
Twinning Thinning Theorem
Till Was Inherently Nought
but toothpicks 2 pick bones
with each other
I I I
Bias con-UN-drum Sect
as U will
Annihilation Systemic Structure
Assured Demise Locked In Belief
Left And Right
1 law of 3
Serpent Induced Neurosis
Man Unequivocally Smarter Eh!!
Gerunds And Danglings
PRICK mi FIBIB
Political Religious Illusion Charlatan Kayfabe
Fickle Inherent Bias Ignorant Bliss
Smorgasbord Of Beliefs
Build Your Own Beliefs BYOB Bring Your Own Booze
One And Same Taint
2B or not 2B
Reverent Intuitive Confucius Think Usurper Repos Equity
What IT Is
Once In There Is No Getting Out
Short Circuit Intuitive Eye Neutering Cause Effect
Scripture Concentration Incineration Enrich Nefarious Camp Entrepreneurs
The elenchus remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions is asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand.
The problem of understanding Socrates as a philosopher is shown in the following: In Xenophon’s Symposium, Socrates is reported as saying he devotes himself
only to what he regards as the most important art or occupation,
that of discussing philosophy.
Aristophanes portrays Socrates as accepting payment for teaching and running a sophist school with Chaerephon.
Also, in Plato’s Apology and Symposium, as well as in Xenophon’s accounts, Socrates explicitly denies accepting payment for teaching.
In the monologue of the Apology, Socrates states he was active for Athens in the battles of Amphipolis, Delium, and Potidaea. In the Symposium, Alcibiades describes Socrates’ valour in the battles of Potidaea and Delium, recounting how Socrates saved his life in the former battle (219e-221b). Socrates’ exceptional service at Delium is also mentioned in the Laches by the General after whom the dialogue is named (181b). In the Apology, Socrates compares his military service to his courtroom troubles, and says anyone on the jury who thinks he ought to retreat from philosophy must also think soldiers should retreat when it seems likely that they will be killed in battle.
Arrest of Leon
Plato’s Apology, parts 32c to 32d, describes how Socrates and four others were summoned to the Tholos, and told by representatives of the oligarchy of the Thirty (the oligarchy began ruling in 404 B.C.) to go to Salamis, and from there, to return to them with Leon the Salaminian. He was to be brought back to be subsequently executed. However, Socrates returned home and did not go to Salamis as he was expected to.
Trial and death
Causes of the trial
Socrates lived during the time of the transition from the height of the Athenian hegemony to its decline with the defeat by Sparta and its allies in the Peloponnesian War. At a time when Athens sought to stabilize and recover from its defeat, the Athenian public may have been entertaining doubts about democracy as an efficient form of government.
Socrates appears to have been a critic of democracy,
and some scholars interpret his trial as an expression of political infighting.
Claiming loyalty to his city, Socrates clashed with the current course of Athenian politics and society. He praised Sparta, archrival to Athens, directly and indirectly in various dialogues.
One of Socrates’ purported offenses to the city was his position
as a social and moral critic.
Rather than upholding
a status quo
accepting the development
of what he perceived as immorality within his region,
Socrates questioned the collective notion of
“might makes right”
that he felt was common in Greece during this period.
Plato refers to Socrates as the “gadfly” of the state (as the gadfly stings the horse into action, so Socrates stung various Athenians), insofar as he irritated some people with considerations of justice and the pursuit of goodness.
His attempts to improve the Athenians’ sense of justice may have been the cause of his execution.
According to Plato’s Apology, Socrates’ life as the “gadfly” of Athens began when his friend Chaerephon asked the oracle at Delphi if anyone were wiser than Socrates; the Oracle responded that no-one was wiser.
Socrates believed the Oracle’s response was not correct,
because he believed he possessed no wisdom whatsoever.
He proceeded to test the riddle by approaching men considered wise by the people of Athens—statesmen, poets, and artisans—in order to refute the Oracle’s pronouncement.
Questioning them, however, Socrates concluded: while each man thought he knew a great deal and was wise, in fact they knew very little and were not wise at all.
Socrates realized the Oracle was correct; while so-called wise men thought themselves wise and yet were not,
he himself knew he was not wise at all, which, paradoxically, made him the wiser one
since he was the only person aware of his own ignorance.
Socrates’ paradoxical wisdom made the prominent Athenians he publicly questioned look foolish, turning them against him and leading to accusations of wrongdoing. Socrates defended his role as a gadfly until the end: at his trial, when Socrates was asked to propose his own punishment, he suggested
a wage paid by the government and free dinners for the rest of his life instead, to finance the time he spent as Athens’ benefactor.
Robin Waterfield suggests that Socrates was a voluntary scapegoat; his death was the purifying remedy for Athens’ misfortunes. In this view, the token of appreciation for Asclepius (the Greek god for curing illness) would represent a cure for Athens’ ailments.
Main article: Trial of Socrates
One day during the year 399 BC Socrates went on trial  and was subsequently found guilty of both corrupting the minds of the youth of Athens and of impiety (asebeia  – “not believing in the gods of the state”), and as a punishment sentenced to death, caused by the drinking of a mixture containing poison hemlock.
Death of Socrates
Socrates’ death is described at the end of Plato’s Phaedo, although Plato was not himself present at the execution. As to the veracity of Plato’s account it seems possible he made choice of a number of certain factors perhaps omitting others in the description of the death, as the Phaedo description does not describe progress of the action of the poison (Gill 1973) in concurrence with modern descriptions. Phaedo states, after drinking the poison, he was instructed to walk around until his legs felt numb. After he lay down, the man who administered the poison pinched his foot; Socrates could no longer feel his legs. The numbness slowly crept up his body until it reached his heart.
Socrates chose to cover his face during the execution (118 a6 Phaedo).
Phaedo (61c-69e ) states Socrates stated All of philosophy is training for death.
His last words
Socrates last words are thought to be ironic (C. Gill 1973), or sincere (J. Crooks 1998). Socrates speaks his last words to Crito (depending on the translation):
“Crito, we owe a rooster to Asclepius.
Please, don’t forget to pay the debt.” 
“Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius, Pay it and do not neglect it.” 
“Crito, we owe a cock to Asclepius, make this offering to him and do not forget” 
Socrates turned down Crito’s pleas to attempt an escape from prison. Xenophon and Plato agree that Socrates had an opportunity to escape, as his followers were able to bribe the prison guards. There have been several suggestions offered as reasons why he chose to stay:
- He believed such a flight would indicate a fear of death, which he believed no true philosopher has.
- If he fled Athens his teaching would fare no better in another country, as he would continue questioning all he met and undoubtedly incur their displeasure.
- Having knowingly agreed to live under the city’s laws, he implicitly subjected himself to the possibility of being accused of crimes by its citizens and judged guilty by its jury. To do otherwise would have caused him to break his “social contract” with the state, and so harm the state, an unprincipled act.
- If he escaped at the instigation of his friends, then his friends would become liable in law.
The full reasoning behind his refusal to flee is the main subject of the Crito. In as much as Socrates drank hemlock willingly without complaint (having decided against fleeing), R.G. Frey(1978) has suggested
Socrates chose to commit suicide.
Give Me Sanity
Hemlock And Blindfold
1 law of 3
Mores (/ˈmɔːreɪz/ sometimes /ˈmɔːriːz/; from Latin mōrēs, [ˈmoːreːs], plural form of singular mōs, meaning “manner”, “custom”, “usage”, “habit”) was introduced from English into American English by William Graham Sumner (1840–1910), an early U.S. sociologist, to refer to social norms that are widely observed and are considered to have greater moral significance than others. Mores include an aversion for societal taboos, such as incest.The mores of a society usually predicate legislation prohibiting their taboos. Often, countries will employ specialized
vice squads or vice police
engaged in suppressing specific crimes
offending the societal mores.
The English word morality comes from the same Latin root “mōrēs”, as does the English noun moral.
mores do not, as is commonly supposed, necessarily carry connotations of morality.
Rather, morality can be seen as a subset of mores, held to be of central importance in view of their content, and often formalized in some kind of
The problem with discerning Socrates’ philosophical views stems from the perception of contradictions in statements made by the Socrates in the different dialogues of Plato; and in later dialogues Plato used the character Socrates to give voice to views that were his own. These contradictions produce doubt as to the actual philosophical doctrines of Socrates, within his milieu and as recorded by other individuals. Aristotle, in his Magna Moralia, refers to Socrates in words which make it patent that the doctrine
virtue is knowledge was held by Socrates.
Within the Metaphysics, he states Socrates was occupied with the search for
‘first to search for universal definitions for them ‘.
Entertain Thinking Confucius
551 BC – 479 BC
Pedagogy (/ˈpɛdəˌɡɒdʒi/) is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of teaching. Pedagogy informs teaching strategies, teacher actions, and teacher judgments and decisions by taking into consideration theories of learning, understandings of students and their needs,
interests of individual students.
Pedagogy includes how the teacher interacts with students and the social and intellectual environment the teacher seeks to establish. Spanning a broad range of practice, its aims range from furthering liberal education (the general development of human potential) to the narrower specifics of vocational education (the imparting and acquisition of specific skills).
Left Or Right Eh
There Of Aspiring Deceptive Serpents
Critical pedagogy is both a pedagogical approach and a broader
Critical pedagogy acknowledges that educational practices are contested and shaped by history,
schools are not politically neutral spaces
Decisions regarding the curriculum, disciplinary practices, student testing, textbook selection, the language used by the teacher, and more can empower or disempower students. It recognises that educational practices favour some students over others and some practices harm all students. It also recognises that educational practices often favour some voices and perspectives while marginalising or ignoring others. Another aspect examined is the power the teacher holds over students and the implications of this. Its aims include empowering students to become active and engaged citizens, who are able to actively improve their own lives and their communities.
Critical pedagogical practices may include, listening to and including students’ knowledge and perspectives in class, making connections between school and the broader community, and posing problems to students that encourage them to question assumed knowledge and understandings. The goal of problem posing to students is to enable them to begin to pose their own problems. Teachers acknowledge their position of authority and exhibit this authority through their actions that support students.
According to tradition, Confucius was born in 551 B.C., in the Spring and Autumn Period, at the beginning of the Hundred Schools of Thought philosophical movement.
Confucius was born in or near the city of Qufu (曲阜), in the Chinese State of Lu (魯) (now part of Shandong Province).
Early accounts say that he was born into a poor but noble family that had fallen on hard times.
Confucius was from a warrior family. His father Shulianghe (叔梁紇) had military exploits in two battles and owned a fiefdom.
he Records of the Grand Historian (史記), compiled some four centuries later, states that Confucius was born as a result of a yehe (野合), or “illicit union”.
His father died when Confucius was three years old, and he was brought up in poverty by his mother.
His social ascendancy linked him to the growing class of shì (士), a class whose status lay between that of the old nobility and the common people,
that comprised men who sought social positions on
the basis of talents and skills, rather than heredity.
As a child, Confucius was said to have enjoyed putting ritual vases on the sacrifice table.
He married a young girl named Qi Guan (亓官) at 19 and she gave birth to their first child, Kong Li, (孔鯉) when he was 20.
Confucius is reported to have worked as a shepherd, cowherd, clerk, and a book-keeper.
His mother died when Confucius was 23, and he entered three years of mourning for the loss of his mother.
Confucius is said to have risen to the position of Justice Minister (大司寇) in Lu at the age of 53.
According to the Records of the Grand Historian, the neighboring state of Qi (齊)was worried that Lu was becoming too powerful.
Qi decided to sabotage Lu’s reforms by sending 100 good horses and 80 beautiful dancing girls to the Duke of Lu.
The Duke indulged himself in pleasure and did not attend to official duties for three days.
Confucius was deeply disappointed and resolved to leave Lu and seek better opportunities,
yet to leave at once would expose the misbehavior of the Duke and therefore bring public humiliation to the ruler Confucius was serving,
so Confucius waited for the Duke to make a lesser mistake.
Soon after, the Duke neglected to send to Confucius a portion of the sacrificial meat that was his due according to custom,
and Confucius seized this pretext to leave both his post and the state of Lu.
Although Confucianism is often followed in a religious manner by the Chinese, arguments continue over whether it is a religion.
Confucianism discusses elements of the afterlife and views concerning tian (Heaven),
but it is relatively unconcerned with some spiritual matters often considered essential to religious thought, such as the nature of the soul.
In the Analects (論語), Confucius presents himself as a
“transmitter who invented nothing”.
He puts the greatest emphasis on the importance of study,
and it is the Chinese character for study (or learning) that opens the text.
In this respect, he is seen by Chinese people as the Greatest Master.
Far from trying to build a systematic theory of life and society or establish a formalism of rites,
he wanted his disciples
deeply for themselves and relentlessly study the outside world,
mostly through the old scriptures and by relating the
of the present to past political events
(like the Annals) or
past expressions of feelings by common people and reflective members of the elite, preserved in the poems of the Book of Odes (詩經).
Often overlooked in Confucian ethics are the virtues to the self,
namely sincerity and the cultivation of knowledge.
Virtuous action towards others begins with virtuous and sincere thought, which begins WITH KNOWLEDGE.
A virtuous disposition
is susceptible to corruption and virtuous action without sincerity is not true righteousness.
Cultivating knowledge and sincerity is also important for one’s own sake;
the superior person loves learning for the sake of learning and righteousness for the sake of righteousness.
Two of Confucius’s most famous later followers emphasized radically different aspects of his teachings.
In the centuries after his death, Mencius (孟子) and Xun Zi (荀子) both composed important teachings elaborating in different ways
on the fundamental ideas associated with Confucius.
Mencius (4th century BC) articulated the innate goodness in human beings as a source of the ethical intuitions that guide people towards rén, yì, and lǐ,
while Xun Zi (3rd century BC) underscored the realistic and materialistic aspects of Confucian thought,
stressing that morality was inculcated in society through tradition and in individuals through training.
In time, their writings, together with the Analects and other core texts came to constitute the philosophical corpus of Confucianism.
This realignment in Confucian thought was parallel to the development of Legalism,
which saw filial piety as self-interest and not a useful tool for a ruler to create an effective state.
A disagreement between these two political philosophies came to a head in 223 BC when the Qin state conquered all of China. Li Ssu,
Prime Minister of the Qin Dynasty convinced Qin Shi Huang to abandon the Confucians’ recommendation of awarding fiefs akin to the Zhou Dynasty before them
which he saw as counter to the Legalist idea of centralizing the state around the ruler.
When the Confucian advisers pressed their point, Li Ssu had many Confucian scholars killed and their books burned—considered a huge blow to the philosophy and Chinese scholarship.
During the Song Dynasty, the scholar Zhu Xi (AD 1130–1200) added ideas from Daoism and Buddhism into Confucianism.
In his life, Zhu Xi was largely ignored, but not long after his death his ideas became the new orthodox view of what Confucian texts actually meant. Modern historians view Zhu Xi as having created something rather different, and call his way of thinking Neo-Confucianism. Neo-Confucianism held sway in China, Korea, and Vietnam until the 19th century.
Burning of the books and burying of the scholars (traditional Chinese: 焚書坑儒; simplified Chinese: 焚书坑儒; pinyin: Fénshū Kēngrú) is a phrase that refers to a purported policy and a sequence of events in the Qin Dynasty of Ancient China, between the period of 213 and 206 BC. During these events, the Hundred Schools of Thought were pruned;legalism survived. One side effect was the marginalization of the thoughts of the school of Mozi and the survival of the thoughts of Confucius.
It is important to note, however, that few scholars today believe that Sima Qian’s account of the book-burning in the Records of the Grand Historian — the source of our knowledge about this event — reflects what actually happened.
1 Book burning
2 Burial of the scholars
3 See also
5 External links
According to the Records of the Grand Historian, after Qin Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of China, unified China in 221 BC, his chancellor Li Si suggested suppressing the intellectual discourse to unify all thoughts and political opinions. This was justified by accusations that the intelligentsia sang false praise and raised dissent through libel.
Beginning in 213 BC, all classic works of the Hundred Schools of Thought — except those from Li Si’s own school of philosophy known as legalism — were subject to book burning.
Qin Shi Huangdi burned the other histories out of fear that they undermined his legitimacy, and wrote his own history books. Afterwards, Li Si took his place in this area.
Li Si proposed that all histories in the imperial archives except those written by the Qin historians be burned; that the Classic of Poetry, the Classic of History, and works by scholars of different schools be handed in to the local authorities for burning; that anyone discussing these two particular books be executed; that those using ancient examples to satirize contemporary politics be put to death, along with their families; that authorities who failed to report cases that came to their attention were equally guilty; and that those who had not burned the listed books within 30 days of the decree were to be banished to the north as convicts working on building the Great Wall. The only books to be spared in the destruction were books on war, medicine, agriculture and divination.
Burial of the scholars
After being deceived by two alchemists while seeking prolonged life, Qin Shi Huangdi ordered more than 460 scholars in the capital to be buried alive in the second year of the proscription, though an account given by Wei lan jiao in the 2nd century added another 700 to the figure. As some of them were also Confucian scholars, Fusu counselled that, with the country newly unified, and enemies still not pacified, such a harsh measure imposed on those who respect Confucius would cause instability. However, he was unable to change his father’s mind, and instead was sent to guard the frontier in a de facto exile.
The quick fall of the Qin Dynasty was attributed to this proscription. Confucianism was revived in the Han Dynasty that followed, and became the official ideology of the Chinese imperial state. Many of the other schools had disappeared.
So Many Evils
Silent Majority Evolve